The situation in South Sudan presents a grim picture. In 2016, the conflict spread further across the country. Formerly non-affected areas have also become theatres of war. Especially in the southern Equatoria states, large-scale and partly ethnically motivated violence took root. The physical security of all ethnic groups was severely affected. In addition, the conflict was the main driver of famine and increasing flows of Internally Displaced Persons (IDP's) and refugees. In July 2016, an escalation of violence in the capital of Juba led to the evacuation of most of the implementing partners' international staff. It took several months before activities resumed and projects were back on track. South Sudan is experiencing one of the world's biggest humanitarian crises, which is aggravated by macroeconomic factors. The civil war, hyperinflation due to shrinking government revenue and huge budget deficits have contributed to the increasing socio-economic hardship of the people and a severe economic crisis. Many more people would have starved or been on the brink of starvation without the continuation of donor-sponsored humanitarian assistance. The Dutch programme focuses on helping to create the conditions for peace and reconciliation, and helping to keep certain key services to the public in place, particularly in water and agriculture. As can be expected in this kind of working environment, the programme results have been affected by the insecurity in many areas and by the economic crisis. Nevertheless, the Dutch development programme did achieve results in the areas of security and rule of law, food security and water, thus demonstrating the added value of Dutch development contributions, apart from the fact that withdrawing from South Sudan would mean turning our back on a population that needs the support of the international community.